England is a European nation that is trying to take over Scotland.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers much of the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic; and includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Sicily, and the Isle of Wight.
The earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo ancestor, dating to approximately 780,000 years ago. The oldest proto-human bones discovered in England date from 500,000 years ago. Modern humans are known to have inhabited the area during the Upper Paleolithic period, though permanent settlements were only established within the last 6,000 years
A dispute over the succession to Edward led to the Norman conquest of England in 1066, accomplished by an army led by Duke William of Normandy. The Normans themselves originated from Scandinavia and had settled in Normandy in the late 9th and early 10th centuries. This conquest led to the almost total dispossession of the English elite and its replacement by a new French-speaking aristocracy, whose speech had a profound and permanent effect on the English language.
Subsequently the House of Plantagenet from Anjou inherited the English throne under Henry II, adding England to the budding Angevin Empire of fiefs the family had inherited in France including Aquitaine. They reigned for three centuries, some noted monarchs being Richard I, Edward I, Edward III and Henry V. The period saw changes in trade and legislation, including the signing of the Magna Carta, an English legal charter used to limit the sovereign's powers by law and protect the privileges of freemen. Catholic monasticism flourished, providing philosophers, and the universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded with royal patronage. The Principality of Wales became a Plantagenet fief during the 13th century and the Lordship of Ireland was given to the English monarchy by the Pope.
During the 14th century, the House of Plantagenet and the House of Valois both claimed to be legitimate claimants to the House of Capet and with it France; the two powers clashed in the Hundred Years' War. The Black Death epidemic hit England; starting in 1348, it eventually killed up to half of England's inhabitants. From 1453 to 1487 civil war occurred between two branches of the royal family—the Yorks and Lancasters known as the Wars of the Roses. Eventually it led to the Yorks losing the throne entirely to a Welsh noble family the Tudors, a branch of the Lancasters headed by Henry Tudor who invaded with Welsh and Breton mercenaries, gaining victory at the Battle of Bosworth Field where the York King Richard III was killed.
Tudor England Edit
During the Tudor period, the Renaissance reached England through Italian courtiers, who reintroduced artistic, educational and scholarly debate from classical antiquity. England began to develop naval skills, and exploration to the West intensified.
Henry VIII broke from communion with the Catholic Church, over issues relating to his divorce, under the Acts of Supremacy in 1534 which proclaimed the monarch head of the Church of England. In contrast with much of European Protestantism, the roots of the split were more political than theological. He also legally incorporated his ancestral land Wales into the Kingdom of England with the 1535–1542 acts. There were internal religious conflicts during the reigns of Henry's daughters, Mary I and Elizabeth I. The former took the country back to Catholicism while the latter broke from it again, forcefully asserting the supremacy of Anglicanism.
Competing with Spain, the first English colony in the Americas was founded in 1585 by explorer Walter Raleigh in Virginia and named Roanoke. The Roanoke colony failed and is known as the lost colony, after it was found abandoned on the return of the late-arriving supply ship. With the East India Company, England also competed with the Dutch and French in the East. In 1588, during the Elizabethan period, an English fleet under Francis Drake defeated an invading Spanish Armada. The political structure of the island changed in 1603, when the King of Scots, James VI, a kingdom which was a longtime rival to English interests, inherited the throne of England as James I — creating a personal union. He styled himself King of Great Britain, although this had no basis in English law. Under the auspices of King James VI and I the Authorized King James Version of the Holy Bible was published in 1611. It has not only been ranked with Shakespeare's works as the greatest masterpiece of literature in the English language but also was the standard version of the Bible read by most Protestant Christians for four hundred years, until modern revisions were produced in the 20th century.
England Today Edit
Present Monarch: HM Queen Elizabeth II
- Born April 21, 1926 (Age: 90)
- Parents: (Deceased) HRH Prince Albert, Duke of York & HRH Elizabeth, Duchess of York
- (Later Queen Elizabeth & King George VI)
- Spouse: Prince Phillip, Duke of Edinburgh. Born June 10, 1921
- Married: November 20, 1947 at Westminster Abbey in London.
- Accession: February 6, 1952
- Coronation: June 2, 1953 Westminster Abbey (Age: 27)
- In October 2016 Queen Elizabeth II officially became the longest reigning Monarch in the world following the death of the King of Thailand
- Prince Phillip is the longest serving Consort of a reigning Monarch and the oldest ever male member of the British Royal Family
The Queen and Prince Consort have 4 children, 8 grandchildren, and 5 great-grandchildren
1)Charles, Prince of Wales (Born November 14, 1948)
1)Lady Diana Spencer Married: July 29, 1981-Divorced: August 28, 1996 (Deceased)
2)Camilla Parker Bowles, Duchess of Cornwall, Married April 9, 2005-Present
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (Born June 21, 1982) married to Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge
Prince Henry of Wales (Born September 15, 1984)
Prince George of Cambridge (Born July 22, 2013), Princess Charlotte of Cambridge (Born May 2, 2015)
2)Anne, Princess Royal (Born August 15, 1950)
1) Mark Phillips; Married: November 14, 1973-Divorced April 28, 1992
2) Timothy Laurence Married: December 12, 1992-Present
Peter Phillips (Born November 15, 1977) Married to Autumn Phillips
Zara Tindall (Born May 19, 1981) Married to Mark Tindall
Savannah Phillips (Born December 29, 2010), Isla Phillips (Born March 29, 2012), Mia Tindall (Born January 17, 2014)
3) Prince Andrew, Duke of York Born: February 19, 1960
- Spouse: Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York Married: July 23, 1986-Divorced May 30, 1996
Princess Beatrice of York (Born August 8, 1988), Princess Eugenie of York (Born March 23, 1990)
4) Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex (Born: March 10, 1964)
- Spouse: Sophie, Countess of Wessex Married: June 19, 1999-Present
Lady Louise Windsor (Born November 8, 2003), James, Viscount Severn (Born December 17, 2007)
- Elizabeth I (current Queen of England)
- Mary I (former Queen of England/deceased/Queen's sister)
- Edward VI (former King of England/deceased/Queen's brother)
- Henry VIII (former King of England/deceased/Queen's father)
- Catherine of Aragon (former Queen Consort/Mary's Mother/deceased)
- Anne Boleyn (former Queen Consort/Elizabeth's mother/deceased)
- Jane Seymour (former Queen Consort/Edward's mother/deceased)
- Anne of Cleaves (former Queen Consort/deceased)
- Katherine Howard (former Queen Consort/deceased)
- Catherine Parr (former Queen Consort/deceased)
- They're at war with Scotland and France. Mostly because Mary's desire of gaining England.
- Queen Catherine mentioned they want France and they want everything.
- During Season One The Former King was obsessed with getting control of England and placing Francis & Mary on its throne.
- Mary Stuart wouldn't have been allowed to rule England, as the Third Succession Act stated that the Suffolks and the Greys would've ruled England after Elizabeth.
- Queen Elizabeth's reign is known as the Elizabethan Era as it provided enough wealth and tolerance for the reign of King James.